giving and receiving (the art of cooperation and conflict)

Organizing notes and/or…
What I learn (try to figure out and detail) along the way in my study about obesity and the microbiome/gut bacteria …

Newborns, breast milk and HMO’s…

Galactose (molecule) is one of the sugars (a building block for HMO) found in breast milk.

Oligosaccharide from the Greek, oligos, a few, and sácchar, sugar.
Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) are sugar molecules found only in human breast milk. HMO’s, while indigestible in a newborn, encourage the growth of health promoting bifidobacteria. Think: fertilizer designed for fitness enhancing microbes.

Stuff I find particularly interesting…
Breast feeding promotes a diversity in the microbiome that may set up an individual for protection against future obesity (amongst other things).
Breast milk varies over the period of lactation and the growth of bacteria varies in different populations.

And then there are the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) …

Butyrate (a most essential SCFA necessary for homeostasis)

SCFA are another product of microbial (friendly gut bacteria) fermentation (of indigestible dietary fibers). This source energy for the cells lining the colon kill pathogens and protects against dysbiosis.

Included in my drawing are the 3 most common examples of SCFA’s which are butyrate↑, propionate↓ and acetate↓↓.

(Yes…fun to draw out  and paint all the ball and stick models.)

Propionate (Greek protos, first and pion, fat) produces glucose in the liver.

 

Acetate (taken up by astrocytes/glial metabolism)

Takeaways…
The right food early in life trains the immune system via the microbiome.
Changes in diet (those SCFA) drive changes in gut microbes. Fiber rich foods (plant based) allow host and microbes to have mutualistic relationship (cooperation).
Microbes harm and/or help us (the host).
Junk food allows for conflict (harm).

…and then there’s hormones…

Insulin (Ribbon diagram) allows the body to use glucose for energy or store for future use.

Ghrelin (ribbon diagram) in the stomach – stimulates appetite and promotes fat storage.

Questions…
Does some food fuel pathogens and promote their growth?
Does some food inhibit or kill pathogens?
Do pathogens play a role in obesity?

#PortraitOfVeronica #GottaHaveArt #ThisStuffIsFrickinComplicated

ps. The title of the post came after a Yoga class the day after the holiday.


©2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED BY MONICA AISSA MARTINEZ

a city, modified: 20 years of modified arts

A City, Modified, is a cross between historical exhibition and invitational. The show surveys Modified Arts’ origin in 1999 to the present day and explores the galleries’ history as a music venue and arts space in downtown Phoenix through photographs and historical memorabilia. It is also an invitation to a selection of artists that have had an impact on the space and the arts community in Phoenix over the last two decades.

Participating Artists Include:
Annie Lopez
Brent Bond
Casebeer
Christine Cassano
David Dauncey
Daniel Funkhouser
James Angel
Jerry Jacobson
Douglas Miles
John Randall Nelson
Laura Spalding Best
Malena Barnhart
Monica Aissa Martinez
Rembrandt Quiballo
Sergio Aguirre

Who: Modified Arts
What: A City, Modified
When: November 15 – December 14th
Opening Reception: Third Friday, November 15th, 2019 6pm-9pm
Closing Reception: First Friday, December 6th, 2019 6pm-9pm
Where: Downtown Phoenix, Roosevelt Row

m/a
407 E Roosevelt, Phoenix AZ 85004
Gallery Hours: Monday – Friday 9a-5p, Saturday 12-4p
or by appointment at info@modifiedarts.org
more → www.modifiedarts.org
Facebook invite

Congratulation Modified!


Here are 2 of my memories (in photo)…

2010 / Converging Trajectories, Crossing Borders to Build Bridges

2011 / What Goes On and What Takes Place

 

speaking of diversity…

I’m still in the GI tract, looking at the microbiome as it relates to obesity.

Energetically, I’m in the solar plexus, the space below the rib-cage and behind the naval. This area governs digestion and metabolism. (Note: I have a very different picture of this nowadays.) Symbolically, it is the center holding our willpower and self-esteem. One of my Yoga teachers refers to it as the city of jewels.

Out of balance, the area can carry either excess energy or an energy deficiency. A balanced solar plexus can wake up ones sense of personal power.

The area holds (for you) a bright yellow light. #Fire

I think about optimal well-being which includes the whole person … physical, mental and social well-being (body, spirit and mind).

Here are a few personal details about my cousin …

Veronica has 3 children. They hold space in the composition ↑ as sperm meets egg (3x). Her children are adults (she’s a grandmother).

The day I photograph her, I note long fingernails and dark purple nail-polish. This last week I give the study a manicure and pedicure.

Veronica has numerous tattoos. Three flowers ( 2 blue and 1 🌸) are added to the top, left foot (our right, her left).  FYI…the immune system keeps those tats in place!

Puncture the skin and immune cells kick in. Macrophages (remember the big eater) work to gobble up invaders, in this case, the ink particles. Yes, they hold the color in place! Should the dermal macrophages be destroyed, new ones step in and continue holding that ink. The purple floating shapes ↑ to either side of the flowers – represent this (cool) hand-over system.

For years I’d not seen the small pastel of Veronica as an infant. It was on the wall during our photo shoot. I include a portrait of the portrait ↑ in the drawing as I consider a newborn’s microbiota.

Do you know breast fed babies have a more diverse microbiome while formula fed babies have a less diverse microbiome? Human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) is particularly interesting. The energy rich substrate, individual to each mother, varies throughout the period of lactation. Infants can’t absorb HMO… but microbes can.

I don’t clearly understand until now, how a high-diversity of microbes might lead to better health conditions for an individual. I mostly focus on who we are feeding – the good microbes and/or the bad microbes. And while this does play into things, so does supporting a well diverse population of microbes. With diversity, perhaps no one microbe can cause a problem (reduction in pathogenic infection).

And speaking of diversity…

Each time I’ve spoken to Veronica, she brings up the word diversity. She’s indicates in one way or another, the importance of inclusion and the recognition of a variety of individuals in terms of personal and work environments, organizations…etc. There is so much more to this idea, she says, so much more….

Veronica will be finishing up school very soon and probably a new career adventure to follow soon after.

I’ve completed 11 life-size humans – diverse in so many ways. When I am done with this one – it will be #12!Thanks for trusting me to bring your uniqueness into the mix Veronica.


Some thoughts…
This work in particular is valuable to me because right now I look at obesity (and the microbiome) through the lens of Evolution Medicine. I am particularly drawn to the idea of adaptation and how the concept applies to health and wellness.  Though always aware, I am even more clear on how everything we do has a cost and/or trade-off.  I’m more inclined to consider how this applies specifically to the care of the human body and the individual.

My understanding of the microbiome feels like I’m working a complicated puzzle. Things come together one piece at a time. At this point, I almost feel like I could go back to each drawing and add a microbial element.

What the body holds is incredible…I understand  more and more one human study at a time.

#GottaHaveArt


©2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED BY MONICA AISSA MARTINEZ

bugs, seashells, skulls

This semester the majority of the students use a variety of Micro-pens. Note the line work in this assignment, some indicates structure while some indicates texture.

The subject matter is a natural and complex form. Students used to draw only shells. A few years ago I brought in bugs. This semester, thanks to the PC biology department, we have small animal skulls. The composition is to include 2-3 objects and students must balance out positive space with negative space.

While I would like each student to include 1 of each (bug, shell and skull) in their composition, I let them pick and choose. I’m not surprised some students don’t like the bugs. I’m very surprised others don’t care for the skulls. And I understand why most of them love the variety in the seashells.

Santan focuses on a star fish.

Drawing students learn the skill of observation. Using a magnifying lens, they look closely at the form and surface of their complex object. Marker (no eraser) forces them to work slow and careful. They learn to focus. They learn patience, commitment and discipline. During critique we talk about how these traits show up in the work.

The assignment goes well. Here are a few of the studies.

Santana’s What Am I Looking at?

Angel, She Sells

Luis’s Land and Sea

Seb’s Sirens Song

Leo’s Hopper Goes to the Beach

Grace’s SeaShells

Pedro’s Dinner Time

Ilse’s Monsters

Aine’s She Sells Sea Shells

Eman’s Food Chain

Luka’s Linear Evolution

Luka’s Speleothems

Fernando’s Skulls Overboard

Early in the semester, students tell me about Inktober. In general, I think the idea behind this is one ink drawing a day throughout the month of October. This study takes at least 4 days for the majority of the class. But it’s still a fine drawing for the month!  #inktober2019


The post includes only a few of the drawings. You can see all of the work on Thursday, November 7th, when Phoenix College (main campus) celebrates National STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, Math) day.  Free and open to the public. You’re invited!
more

pretty close to a PSA …

2 things….
Last week I had a very quick (and very spontaneous) introduction to molecules. (Thanks Joseph!)  I returned to the studio loving the ball-and-stick sculpture-like forms, knowing  they’d show up in the current study (Portrait of Veronica).

and…
This week gut microbes ↓ enter the picture plane. And maybe…so does microbial imbalance aka dysbiosis.

Portrait of Veronica (lower edge of the life-size study)

Understanding Omeprazole is an antacid, I was never at ease hearing Veronica would be on it for the rest of her life.

Omeprazole is what is known as a Proton Pump Inhibitor. PPI’s are among the most widely used (prescription and over-the-counter) medications. They are linked with obesity (among other things). And long term use can be harmful.

I always planned to include something in the composition about antacids. I just had to find the right way to do it.

Enter: Molecules! ↓ Here is omeprazole. I like detailing the form and purposely choose sweet colors  (like candy which many antacids tend to resemble).

FYI, my source for information on antacids is Joe Alcock. If he’s involved, always know the microbiome is involved. He refers to gastric acid juice as the gatekeeper to the microbiome.

Consider stomach acid kills microbes that enter the gut along with food. When gastric acid output is blocked, say…by an antacid, understand the stability (balance) of microbiota is also altered. It appears good bacteria might be reduced while harmful (and opportunistic) bacteria remains.  (Gastric acid also supports absorption of calcium and B12.)

It’s complicated…
#SmallIntestinalBacterialOvergrowth #Dysbiosis #Inflammation #WeightGain

I take a minute to email Joe, who notes there are a few conditions for which life long omeprazole makes sense. For everyone else, he says, PPIs should be a very short term drug.  Read his post and find out why → Killer antacids

You’ll be seeing more molecules in my study…


©2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED BY MONICA AISSA MARTINEZ

histology of the gut, horror vacui at its finest

Rafting the Colorado River a couple of years back, I remember looking at the surrounding walls of the magnificent Grand Canyon. Moving deeper into it, all the while wondering to which organ in the body could I compare the environment. You know … if one day I was to draw on the experience.

Interestingly, more than half the people on the trip were medical professionals. Daily conversation allowed for a variety of responses… lymphatic system, kidneys, adrenals…etc.

I was thinking intestine, more specifically large intestine. If I was there today it could be the entire digestive system.


The last few weeks, I’ve put the portrait of Veronica aside to work a painting for an invitational exhibition. The small study helps me to work out an area of the larger portrait drawing where I struggle.

Collaging a map (of the Grand Canyon) onto canvas, I think about the topography of the GI tract. And looking at histology of the gut, I think horror vacui at its finest!

These multi-colored and multi-finger like ↑ forms are my version of enterocytes.
What: Enterocyte (a cell)
How and Where:  Line up and form intestinal epithelium, (inner surface of the intestine).
Think barrier, absorbing beneficial stuff (like sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc…B12…water…etc…so much more than this but I want record of a few things).
And they restrict entry of harmful stuff (like microbes/pathogens and toxins).
They have an endocrine role (secrete hormones).

Can you tell my interpretation ↑ of this structure of tissues, in the abdominal cavity, hints at gut inflammation? Note the abdominal fat (visceral fat at top and bottom edge) also forms a barrier (surrounds and seals).
What: Adipose tissue (Visceral fat/VAT)
Where: Within abdominal cavity
Why: Fat protects organs by trapping and killing escaping bacteria.
Endocrine organ secretes protein hormones.

Casein, egg tempera, collage on canvas, 19.5 x 26.5″ (WIP)

The composition includes enterocytes, adipocytes, t-cells, macrophages bacteria, viruses…and other stuff…

Painting with casein and egg tempera, I can’t help but think about the food we eat. Casein and egg yolk are binders (adhesives), mixed with pigment, they are my medium. Milk and egg, do they stick…to the gut too?

#wip #horro vacui


Earlier in the month, working the portrait of Veronica with its focus on the microbiome and obesity, I wanted to set the lining of the intestines into the composition ↓. I have to be honest; I kept losing my sense of the space. I needed a map of some sort. I also needed to understand some things → Fat fights back.

So physical…this stuff… and wonderful. It seems to me… the body…might be trying to protect itself (you and me). #sosubtle


©2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED BY MONICA AISSA MARTINEZ

food. who’s in control?

The question: Can gut microbes influence our eating behavior?

Veronica sends a short list of the food and drink she particularly enjoys (and on occasion craves).  Meanwhile I figure out the composition.  I weigh choice and consequence.

Microbiome. Healthy food / Unhealthy food. I weigh the food that feeds good microbes and promotes health (plant-based, fiber-rich) against the food that feeds bad microbes and supports dysbiosis (microbial imbalances that drive disease).

A few things I learn along the way: Less diversity of the microbes in our gut can lead a person to obesity. A healthy microbiome can protect us from infection and disease and produces vitamins (B12 and K).

I know (cuz I draw) there is limited space in the gut. I also know microbes complete for the space. Microbes use it = Microbes use us.  Microbes compete with each other and they compete with us (their host) for space and resources.

What if each and every individual’s gut microbes have needs and wants of their own ? This sort of changes the picture, doesn’t it? And you thought self-control (or lack of) was the main thing driving your food choice and intake.

This whole thing starts to make a little more sense as I draw and paint the food on Veronica’s list, into the composition. I can’t help but think about all the apartments going up in Phoenix and all the growing city traffic. Microbes, like Phoenicians, might be trying to figure out how to survive and thrive in dense environment. #competition

Below are some of the images and notes I post into social media. And as usual…the food pulls in the people (comment threads, not included, were interesting to read).

Pepsi 🥤 has 41g of sugar (and 38mg of caffeine). A Snickers bar 🍫 has 27g of sugar and 14g of fat. Who do you think craves sugars and fats more? You or the microbes  that live in ur gut? #Conflict between #host (you and me) and #microbe (our bugs!). #obesity

I read somewhere that the grilled cheese🧀 🥪  might be the most popular sandwich in the world. 😮 Could this be true!? You tell me. They always remind me of my grandmother who used to take me to a local diner to enjoy one. She loved ❤️ a good grilled cheese 🧀 🥪 . All I’m going to say is that they change your gut flora. All dairy changes the gut flora. It has something to do w short chain fatty acids (lipids). Do your microbes 🦠 love 🧀 🥪?? I bet some of them do. #oozycheese btw…all food changes the gut flora. #bread and #butter #noprocessedcheese

I wrote about the benefits of 🥑 in my last study and they’re plenty. In this current study about obesity and microbes 🦠 – things get complicated. 🥑 are unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated). It feels to me like the benefit might be unique to each individual depending on their gut microbes. 🥑 satiate and if everything is balanced they can suppress hunger and increase meal satisfaction. But if it’s true that microbes 🦠 can hijack our neuronal systems 😮 and our 🧠 brain (I 👂 they can!) well then this changes things. Do microbes 🦠 compete w us for food and energy? It’s the question here. Anyway- I ❤️ 🥑. #appetitehormones #WhoIsInCharge? Is there anyone who doesn’t love a good guacamole?!

🥩 The art of the red meat 🥩 (in this case medium rare). What if 🥩 red meant promoted the growth of bad 🦠 bacteria? And what if we benefitted from eating less of it? This is how I 👁 it (as I ✏️ it). Think about the space in your gut 🤔. It’s limited, right? And tunneled and narrow and twisty turny… Why would we put something hard to digest into our gut to take up space (for a good amount of time) when we can eat more fiber-rich and plant-based 🌱 food that promoted microbes beneficial to our gut? Things could move easily, quickly, take the turns smoothly…or not. Just something light and easy to think about. 🤔 WhatKind? HowMuch? HowOften?

Clementines. 🍊 Oranges! Fruits feed good bacteria 🦠 . 🍊 🍊🍊 in particular have some sort of soluble fiber our gut bacteria 🦠 ferments. One of the byproducts of this process is a fatty acid called #butyrate. Butyrate helps maintain the cells that line our GI tract. And that’s a good thing! You know the soluble fiber is mostly in the stuff that divides the segments of the orange…so eat them all up. Good stuff! #ShortChainFattyAcid #VitaminC #AnOrangeTreeGrowsInPhoenix 🍊🦠

The last thing I draw on the list is 🍺. Veronica likes a German wheat beer called Hefeweizen. I played w the logo Hefe and turned it into the word Jefa. #Jefa, Spanish slang indicating the female #boss.  She is! Ok, now back to the microbes…🤔 Who craves the 🍺? You? or your microbes 🦠? Which microbes? #VitamiminB #Polyphenols Your body lets you know. #OrDysbiosis

Do microbes influence your eating behavior?

#obesity #microbiome  #conflict #cooperation



©2019 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED BY MONICA AISSA MARTINEZ